Cindy Otis, a former CIA analyst, explains the difference between misinformation and disinformation. She explains that disinformation is often used to reinforce existing beliefs, rather than to change them.
Renee DiResta discusses the various ways in which academic researchers, tech companies, civil society, and other stakeholders are working together to combat disinformation in the 2020 election. She also talks about how the different stakeholders can share information in an effective way to ensure the integrity of the election.
Clint Watts discusses the dangers of disinformation and how it can be used to manipulate people. He explains how it can be used to influence people to take action, such as attending protests or dressing up as Hillary Clinton in a cage.
John Brennan, former Director of the CIA, explains why he is opposed to using disinformation in espionage. He believes it is not consistent with what the United States stands for and it undermines the credibility of the United States in the eyes of the world.